Gender Pay Gap

Across the European Union, women’s salary is 18 percent lower that men’s. In Germany, this gap is even wider. The BPW (Business and Professional Women) Germany has started a petition for more equality at work called  "Equal Pay Day".

01. Slovenia
2.3 %
10. Bulgaria
13.0 %
19. Switzerland
17.9 %
02. Poland
4.5 %
11.
Letvia
13.6 %
20.
Hungary
18.0 %
03. Italy
5.8 %
12.
France
14.7 %
21.
Finland
18.2 %
04. Luxemburg
8.7 %
13.
Sweden
15.8 %
22.
UK
20.1 %
05. Belgium
10.2 %
14.
Norway
15.9 %
23.
Slovakia
20.5 %
06. Lithuania
11.9 %
15.
Spain
16.2 %
24.
Czech Republic
21.0 %
07. Romania
12.1 %
16.
Cyprus
16.4 %
25.
Germany
22.2 %

08. Portugal
12.5 %
17.
Denmark
16.4 %
26.
Austria
23.7 %
09. Malta
12.9 %
18.
Netherlands
17.9 %
27.
Estonia
27.3 %

table: gender pay gap in 2011 (from eurostat, European Comission)

The reasons for this unequal pay are manifold. Besides a handed-down distribution of roles which influences the choice of job (e.g. nurse vs. auto mechanic) and employment behaviour (e.g. family-related part-time work and maternity leave), a lack of infrastructure, such as childcare centres, and the current tax and social security laws - which favour marriages with a sole wage earner – have played a major part in this development.

On Equal Pay Day on 21 March 2013, BWP initiated Germany-wide numerous events which pointed out the existing pay gap and demanded action from politician and society. This year’s motto addressed the images of men and women in society, the campaign was entitled “Mannsbilder? – Weibsbilder? – Neue Bilder!” . Demands included a general availability of childcare facilities, a more equal distribution of parental leave and improvements om tax and insurance law.

Women and Science - Statistics and Indicators

The forth report by the European Komission

She Figures 2012 is the fourth publication of its kind assembled by the European Union. It shows that women are still a minority within the scientific community in Europe (29 percent in 2003, which is a slight increase in relation to 27 percent in 1999). On the other hand, the number of women in science is rising – a growth of four percent in comparison to the number of male scientists, which grew by only 2.4 percent. This represents an increase of 140,000 scientists, 39 percent of whom are women.

While this is a positive trend, it should not be forgotten that women in science are still a minority group– especially in leading positions. To guarantee the international competitiveness of the EU it is therefore essential to support this progress and simultaneously strive towards greater equality and the monitoring thereof.

 

She figures 2015 is the fifth publication of its kind assembled by teh European Union. It shows, that there has been success in gender equality in the field of PhD graduates in the EU. Whilst women were once under-represented at doctoral level, in 2012 they made up 47 % of PhD graduates in the EU. It does not look as good in other fields and there is still much work to be done. In 2014, the prportion of women among heads of higher education institutions in the EU rose to 20 % from 15,5 % in 2010. Within the EU women make up 28 % of scientific and administrative board members and only 22 % of board leaders.

While there is still a posive trend in terms of gender equality, women are still underrepresented in leading postions considdering economy as well as science. In December 2015, the council of the European Union invited Member States to set targets for gender balance among full professors and in research decision-making bodies. Hopefully, there will be positive results considering these fields over following years.